Document revision 1.3 (09-Jun-2003)
This document applies to the MikroTik RouterOS™ V2.7
MikroTik RouterOS™ is independent Linux-based Operating System for PC-based routers and thinrouters. It does not require any additional components and has no software prerequirements. It is designed with easy-to-use yet powerful interface allowing network administrators to deploy network structures and functions, that would require long education elsewhere simply by following the Reference Manual (and even without it).
MikroTik RouterOS™ turns a standard PC computer into a powerful network router. Just add standard network PC interfaces to expand the router capabilities.
The Guide describes the basic steps of installing and configuring a dedicated PC router running MikroTik RouterOS™.
The download and installation process of the MikroTik RouterOS™ is described in the following diagram:
After successful installation please remove the installation media from your CD or floppy disk drive and hit 'Enter' to reboot the router. While the router will be starting up for the first time you will be given a Software ID for your installation and asked to supply a valid software license key (Software Key) for it. Write down the Software ID. You will need it to obtain the Software License through the MikroTik Account Server. If you need extra time to obtain the Software License Key, you may want to power off the router. Type shutdown in the Software key prompt and power the router off when the router is halted.
The hard disk will be entirely reformatted during the installation and all data on it will be lost!
You can move the hard drive with MikroTik RouterOS™ installed to a new hardware without loosing a license, but you cannot move the RouterOS™ to a different hard drive without purchasing an another license (except hardware failure situations). For additional information write to support[at]mikrotik.com
After installing the router and starting it up for the first time you will be given a Software ID.
You will be presented with the Account Sign-Up Form where you chose your account name and fill in the required information.
Software ID: 5T4V-IUT Software key: 4N7X-UZ8-6SP
After entering the correct Software License Key you will be presented with the MikroTik Router's login prompt.
MikroTik v2.7 Login: admin Password:
The password can be changed with the /password command.
The additional software packages should have the same version as the system package. If not, the package won't be installed. Please consult the MikroTik RouterOS™ Software Package Installation and Upgrading Manual for more detailed information about installing additional software packages.
[admin@MikroTik] ip firewall src-nat> /system license print software-id: "SB6T-R8T" key: "3YIV-ZW8-DH2" upgradable-unitl: apr/01/2004 [admin@MikroTik] system license> feature print Flags: X - disabled # FEATURE 0 X AP 1 X synchronous 2 X radiolan 3 X wireless-2.4gHz 4 licensed [admin@MikroTik] system license> set key=D46G-IJ6-QW3 [admin@MikroTik] system license>/system reboot Reboot, yes? [y/N]: y system will reboot shortly
MMM MMM KKK TTTTTTTTTTT KKK MMMM MMMM KKK TTTTTTTTTTT KKK MMM MMMM MMM III KKK KKK RRRRRR OOOOOO TTT III KKK KKK MMM MM MMM III KKKKK RRR RRR OOO OOO TTT III KKKKK MMM MMM III KKK KKK RRRRRR OOO OOO TTT III KKK KKK MMM MMM III KKK KKK RRR RRR OOOOOO TTT III KKK KKK MikroTik RouterOS v2.7 (c) 1999-2003 http://www.mikrotik.com/ Terminal xterm detected, using multiline mode [admin@MikroTik] >
The command prompt shows the identity name of the router and the current menu level, for example:
[admin@MikroTik] > Base level menu [admin@MikroTik] interface> Interface configuration [admin@MikroTik] ip address> IP Address management
[admin@MikroTik] > ? driver Driver management file Local router file storage. import Run exported configuration script interface Interface configuration log System logs password Change password ping Send ICMP Echo packets port Serial ports quit Quit console radius Radius client settings redo Redo previosly undone action setup Do basic setup of system snmp SNMP settings undo Undo previous action user User management ppp Point to Point Protocol ip IP options queue Bandwidth management system System information and utilities tool Diagnostics tools routing Various routing protocol settings export Print or save an export script that can be used to restore configuration [admin@MikroTik] > ip ? accounting Traffic accounting address Address management arp ARP entries management dns DNS settings firewall Firewall management neighbor Neighbors packing Packet packing settings pool IP address pools route Route management service IP services policy-routing Policy routing upnp dhcp-client DHCP client settings dhcp-server DHCP server settings dns-cache DNS cache management ipsec IP security export Print or save an export script that can be used to restore configuration [admin@MikroTik] > ip
The list of available commands and menus has short descriptions next to the items. You can move to the desired menu level by typing its name and hitting the [Enter] key, for example:
[admin@MikroTik] > Base level menu [admin@MikroTik] > driver Enter 'driver' to move to the driver level menu [admin@MikroTik] driver> / Enter '/' to move to the base level menu from any level [admin@MikroTik] > interface Enter 'interface' to move to the interface level menu [admin@MikroTik] interface> /ip Enter '/ip' to move to the IP level menu from any level [admin@MikroTik] ip>
A command or an argument does not need to be completed, if it is not ambiguous. For example, instead of typing 'interface' you can type just 'in' or 'int'. To complete a command use the [Tab] key.
The commands may be invoked from the menu level, where they are located, by typing its name. If the command is in a different menu level than the current one, then the command should be invoked using its full (absolute) or relative path, for example:
[admin@MikroTik] ip route> print Prints the routing table [admin@MikroTik] ip route> .. address print Prints the IP address table [admin@MikroTik] ip route> /ip address print Prints the IP address table
The commands may have arguments. The arguments have their names and values. Some commands, may have a required argument that has no name.
Command Action command [Enter] Execute the command [?] Show the list of all available commands command [?] Display help on the command and the list of arguments command argument [?] Display help on the command's argument [Tab] Complete the command/word. If the input is ambiguous, a second [Tab] gives possible options / Move up to the base level /command Execute the base level command .. Move up one level "" Enter an empty string "word1 word2" Enter 2 words that contain a space
You can abbreviate names of levels, commands and arguments.
For the IP address configuration, instead of using the 'address' and 'netmask' arguments, in most cases you can specify the address together with the number of true bits in the network mask, i.e., there is no need to specify the 'netmask' separately. Thus, the following two entries would be equivalent:
/ip address add address 10.0.0.1/24 interface ether1 /ip address add address 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 interface ether1
All Winbox interface functions are as close as possible to Console functions: all Winbox functions are exactly in the same place in Terminal Console and vice versa (except functions that are not implemented in Winbox). That is why there are no Winbox sections in the manual.
The Winbox Console plugin loader, the winbox.exe program, can be retrieved from the MikroTik router, the URL is http://router_address/winbox/winbox.exe Use any web browser on Windows 95/98/ME/NT4.0/2000/XP to retrieve the router's web page with the mentioned link.
Note that if you change the default port for www service on the router, you will have to specify it just after the IP address separated by column (eg. 10.0.0.1:8080).
The winbox plugins are cached on the local disk for each MikroTik RouterOS™ version. The plugins are not downloaded, if they are in the cache, and the router has not been upgraded since the last time it has been accessed.
By clicking on the Winbox Console link you can start the winbox.exe download. Choose the option "Run this program from its current location" and click "OK":
Accept the security warning, if any:
Alternatively, you can save the winbox.exe program to your disk and run it from there.
The winbox.exe program opens the Winbox login window. Login to the router by specifying the IP address (and the port number if you have changed it from the default value of 80), user name, and password, for example:
Watch the download process of Winbox plugins:
The Winbox console is opened after the plugins have been downloaded:
The Winbox Console uses TCP port 3986 (not secure) or 3987 (secure; requires security package to be installed). After logging on to the router you can work with the MikroTik router's configuration through the Winbox console and perform the same tasks as using the regular console.
You can use the menu bar to navigate through the router's configuration menus, open configuration windows. By double clicking on some list items in the windows you can open configuration windows for the specific items, and so on.
There are some hints for using the Winbox Console:
Before configuring the IP addresses and routes please check the /interface menu to see the list of available interfaces. If you have Plug-and-Play cards installed in the router, it is most likely that the device drivers have been loaded for them automatically, and the relevant interfaces appear on the /interface print list, for example:
[admin@MikroTik] interface> print Flags: X - disabled, D - dynamic, R - running # NAME TYPE MTU 0 R ether1 ether 1500 1 R ether2 ether 1500 2 R ether3 ether 1500 3 R ether4 ether 1500 4 R ether5 ether 1500 5 R sync1 sync 1500 6 R pc1 pc 1500 7 R ether6 ether 1500 8 R prism1 prism 1500 [admin@MikroTik] interface>
The interfaces need to be enabled, if you want to use them for communications. Use the /interface enable name command to enable the interface with a given name or number, for example:
[admin@MikroTik] interface> print Flags: X - disabled, D - dynamic, R - running # NAME TYPE MTU 0 X ether1 ether 1500 0 X ether2 ether 1500 [admin@MikroTik] interface> enable 0 [admin@MikroTik] interface> enable ether2 [admin@MikroTik] interface> print Flags: X - disabled, D - dynamic, R - running # NAME MTU TYPE 0 R ether1 ether 1500 0 R ether2 ether 1500 [admin@MikroTik] interface>
The interface name can be changed to a more descriptive one by using the /interface set command:
[admin@MikroTik] interface> set 0 name=Public [admin@MikroTik] interface> set 1 name=Local [admin@MikroTik] interface> print Flags: X - disabled, D - dynamic, R - running # NAME MTU TYPE 0 R Public ether 1500 0 R Local ether 1500 [admin@MikroTik] interface>
The initial setup of the router can be done by using the /setup command which enables an interface, assigns an address/netmask to it, and configures the default route. If you do not use the setup command, or need to modify/add the settings for addresses and routes, please follow the steps described below.
The device drivers for NE2000 compatible ISA cards need to be loaded using the add command under the /drivers menu. For example, to load the driver for a card with IO address 0x280 and IRQ 5, it is enough to issue the command:
[admin@MikroTik] driver> add name=ne2k-isa io=0x280 [admin@MikroTik] driver> print Flags: I - invalid, D - dynamic # DRIVER IRQ IO MEMORY ISDN-PROTOCOL 0 D RealTek 8139 1 D Intel EtherExpressPro 2 D PCI NE2000 3 ISA NE2000 280 4 Moxa C101 Synchronous C8000 [admin@MikroTik] driver>
There are some other drivers that should be added manually. Please refer to the respective manual sections for the detailed information on how drivers are to be loaded.
Assume you need to configure the MikroTik router for the following network setup:
In the current example we use two networks:
The addresses can be added and viewed using the following commands:
[admin@MikroTik] ip address> add address 10.0.0.217/24 interface Public [admin@MikroTik] ip address> add address 192.168.0.254/24 interface Local [admin@MikroTik] ip address> print Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic # ADDRESS NETWORK BROADCAST INTERFACE 0 10.0.0.217/24 10.0.0.217 10.0.0.255 Public 1 192.168.0.254/24 192.168.0.0 192.168.0.255 Local [admin@MikroTik] ip address>
Here, the network mask has been specified in the value of the address argument. Alternatively, the argument 'netmask' could have been used with the value '255.255.255.0'. The network and broadcast addresses were not specified in the input since they could be calculated automatically.
Please note that the addresses assigned to different interfaces of the router should belong to different networks.
You can see two dynamic (D) and connected (C) routes, which have been added automatically when the addresses were added in the example above:
[admin@MikroTik] ip route> print Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic, J - rejected, C - connect, S - static, R - rip, O - ospf, B - bgp # DST-ADDRESS G GATEWAY DISTANCE INTERFACE 0 DC 192.168.0.0/24 r 0.0.0.0 0 Local 1 DC 10.0.0.0/24 r 0.0.0.0 0 Public [admin@MikroTik] ip route> print detail Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic, J - rejected, C - connect, S - static, R - rip, O - ospf, B - bgp 0 DC dst-address=192.168.0.0/24 preferred-source=192.168.0.254 gateway=0.0.0.0 gateway-state=reachable distance=0 interface=Local 1 DC dst-address=10.0.0.0/24 preferred-source=10.0.0.217 gateway=0.0.0.0 gateway-state=reachable distance=0 interface=Public [admin@MikroTik] ip route>
These routes show, that IP packets with destination to 10.0.0.0/24 would be sent through the interface Public, whereas IP packets with destination to 192.168.0.0/24 would be sent through the interface Local. However, you need to specify where the router should forward packets, which have destination other than networks connected directly to the router.
In the following example the default route (destination 0.0.0.0, netmask 0.0.0.0) will be added. In this case it is the ISP's gateway 10.0.0.1, which can be reached through the interface Public:
[admin@MikroTik] ip route> add gateway=10.0.0.1 [admin@MikroTik] ip route> print Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic, J - rejected, C - connect, S - static, R - rip, O - ospf, B - bgp # DST-ADDRESS G GATEWAY DISTANCE INTERFACE 0 S 0.0.0.0/0 r 10.0.0.1 1 Public 1 DC 192.168.0.0/24 r 0.0.0.0 0 Local 2 DC 10.0.0.0/24 r 0.0.0.0 0 Public [admin@MikroTik] ip route>
Here, the default route is listed under #0. As we see, the gateway 10.0.0.1 can be reached through the interface 'Public'. If the gateway was specified incorrectly, the value for the argument 'interface' would be unknown.
You cannot add two routes to the same destination, i.e., destination-address/netmask! It applies to the default routes as well. Instead, you can enter multiple gateways for one destination. For more information on IP routes, please read the relevant topic in the Manual.
If you have added an unwanted static route accidentally, use the remove command to delete the unneeded one. You will not be able to delete dynamic (DC) routes. They are added automatically and represent routes to the networks the router connected directly.
From now on, the /ping command can be used to test the network connectivity on both interfaces. You can reach any host on both connected networks from the router.
In the example below it's seen, hows does ping command work:
[admin@MikroTik] ip route> /ping 10.0.0.4 10.0.0.4 64 byte ping: ttl=255 time=7 ms 10.0.0.4 64 byte ping: ttl=255 time=5 ms 10.0.0.4 64 byte ping: ttl=255 time=5 ms 3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 5/5.6/7 ms [admin@MikroTik] ip route> [admin@MikroTik] ip route> /ping 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.1 64 byte ping: ttl=255 time=1 ms 192.168.0.1 64 byte ping: ttl=255 time=1 ms 192.168.0.1 64 byte ping: ttl=255 time=1 ms 3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1.0/1 ms [admin@MikroTik] ip route>
The workstation and the laptop can reach (ping) the router at its local address 192.168.0.254, If the router's address 192.168.0.254 is specified as the default gateway in the TCP/IP configuration of both the workstation and the laptop, then you should be able to ping the router:
C:\>ping 192.168.0.254 Reply from 192.168.0.254: bytes=32 time=10ms TTL=253 Reply from 192.168.0.254: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=253 Reply from 192.168.0.254: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=253 C:\>ping 10.0.0.217 Reply from 10.0.0.217: bytes=32 time=10ms TTL=253 Reply from 10.0.0.217: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=253 Reply from 10.0.0.217: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=253 C:\>ping 10.0.0.4 Request timed out. Request timed out. Request timed out. C:\>
You cannot access anything beyond the router (network 10.0.0.0/24 and the Internet), unless you do the one of the following:
To set up routing, it is required that you have some knowledge of configuring TCP/IP networks. There is a comprehensive list of IP resources compiled by Uri Raz at http://www.private.org.il/tcpip_rl.html We strongly recommend that you obtain more knowledge, if you have difficulties configuring your network setups.
Next will be discussed situation with 'hiding' the private LAN 192.168.0.0/24 'behind' one address 10.0.0.217 given to you by the ISP.
If you want to 'hide' the private LAN 192.168.0.0/24 'behind' one address 10.0.0.217 given to you by the ISP, you should use the source network address translation (masquerading) feature of the MikroTik router. Masquerading is useful, if you want to access the ISP's network and the Internet appearing as all requests coming from the host 10.0.0.217 of the ISP's network. The masquerading will change the source IP address and port of the packets originated from the network 192.168.0.0/24 to the address 10.0.0.217 of the router when the packet is routed through it.
Masquerading conserves the number of global IP addresses required and it lets the whole network use a single IP address in its communication with the world.
To use masquerading, a source NAT rule with action 'masquerade' should be added to the firewall configuration:
[admin@MikroTik] ip firewall src-nat> add action=masquerade out-interface=Public [admin@MikroTik] ip firewall src-nat> print Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 0 src-address=0.0.0.0/0:0-65535 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0:0-65535 out-interface=Public protocol=all icmp-options=any:any flow="" connection="" content="" limit-count=0 limit-burst=0 limit-time=0s action=masquerade to-src-address=0.0.0.0 to-src-port=0-65535 [admin@MikroTik] ip firewall src-nat>
Mikrotik RouterOS™ V2.7 offers extensive queue management.
Assume you want to limit the bandwidth to 128kbps on downloads and 64kbps on uploads for all hosts on the LAN. Bandwidth limitation is done by applying queues for outgoing interfaces regarding the traffic flow. It is enough to add two queues at the MikroTik router:
[admin@MikroTik] queue simple> add interface=Local max-limit=128000 [admin@MikroTik] queue simple> add interface=Public max-limit=64000 [admin@MikroTik] queue simple> print Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 0 name="queue1" src-address=0.0.0.0/0 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 interface=Local limit-at=0 queue=default priority=8 max-limit=128000 1 name="queue2" src-address=0.0.0.0/0 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 interface=Public limit-at=0 queue=default priority=8 max-limit=64000 [admin@MikroTik] queue simple>
Leave all other parameters as set by default. The limit is approximately 128kbps going to the LAN (download) and 64kbps leaving the client's LAN (upload).
Please consult the Queues Manual for more information on bandwidth management and queuing.
The server'would have been s address now is 192.168.0.4, and we are running web server on it that listens to the TCP port 80. We want to make it accessible from the Internet at address:port 10.0.0.217:80. This can be done by means of Static Network Address translation (NAT) at the MikroTik Router. The Public address:port 10.0.0.217:80 will be translated to the Local address:port 192.168.0.4:80. One destination NAT rule is required for translating the destination address and port:
[admin@MikroTik] ip firewall dst-nat> add action=nat protocol=tcp \ dst-address=10.0.0.217/32:80 to-dst-address=192.168.0.4 [admin@MikroTik] ip firewall dst-nat> print Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 0 src-address=0.0.0.0/0:0-65535 in-interface=all dst-address=10.1.0.217/32:80 protocol=tcp icmp-options=any:any flow="" src-mac-address=00:00:00:00:00:00 limit-count=0 limit-burst=0 limit-time=0s action=nat to-dst-address=192.168.0.4 to-dst-port=0-65535 [admin@MikroTik] ip firewall dst-nat>